The "Peace Movement": Since the beginning of time, humans have warred against each other. Like playground bullies, aggressors have always preyed on the weak, never on the strong. In the more modern era, "The Peace Movement" has arisen which believes that there is no evil in the world and if we can only "talk" to the other side, they will like us and come to our way of thinking. That's all fine except, this movement wants to disarm first. The very idea that if we show weakness, no one will bother us is absurd. It goes directly against human nature. Never has a nation been attacked because it was too strong. The argument is akin to walking through a bad neighborhood with no protection, or telling the invader of your home, "do what you want to the women and children, but leave me alone".
Historically,one only has to look at the evidence. Nazi Germany was able to start WWII because the Allies showed themselves to be weak and cowardly. Japan was able to move in the Pacific at the same time because they believed the United States was weak. Saddam invaded Kuwait at a time he believed no one would counter him. The Soviet Union took all of Eastern Europe following WWII because the Allies were war-weary and weak.
Unemployment Insurance: Humans need to work. It is in our DNA. Without work, humans are no longer human. It gives us pride and dignity, it adds to the social fabric of civilization and puts us all on a more level playing field. Unemployment insurance, provided by the government at a cost to business destroys that part of humanity. It becomes too easy to not work. Extending the length of time someone receives unemployment insurance, the longer one is likely to be unemployed. Anecdotally, how many times have you heard people say, "I'll start looking for a job when my unemployment runs out"? And those who refuse to take a job which is available because it is beneath them and they can still receive unemployment? This is anathema to most of us, but there are enough out there to create a true problem. An empty stomach is the best incentive to find a job.
Government-Run Healthcare: This has not and cannot work. Where it has been tried, it has resulted in rationing and stifled innovation (except for creating a "Black Market" for healthcare). It is beyond absurd to think that a government bureaucrat is going to be more sympathetic to your claim than a private insurer. You are paying a private insurer to buy into a contract. Both parties are bound by the contract. With government, as we see almost constantly, the contract changes at the whim of the government.
The idea that costs can be controlled by putting mandatory cost controls in place is also patently absurd. Nixon's wage and price freeze policy was one of several causes of rampant inflation in the last half of the 1970's. Government would do well to not meddle in healthcare. Administrative burdens due to government regulations already account for as much as $340 billion annually, according to The Cato Institute. With an annual cost of $2 trillion, $340 billion ain't chump change. 17%, if my arithmetic is right.
While none of this "proves" small government is better, it certainly provides adequate evidence.